The United Church of Christ and the Alliance of Baptists also condone gay marriage, and some parts of the Anglican and Lutheran churches allow for the blessing of gay unions.
Within the Anglican communion there are openly gay clergy; for example, Gene Robinson and Mary Glasspool are openly homosexual bishops in the US Episcopal Church and Eva Brunne in Lutheran Church of Sweden.
Regardless of their position on homosexuality, many people of faith look to both sacred texts and tradition for guidance on this issue.
However, the authority of various traditions or scriptural passages and the correctness of translations and interpretations are continually disputed.
In the 20th century, theologians like Karl Barth, Jürgen Moltmann, Hans Küng, John Robinson, Bishop David Jenkins, Don Cupitt, Bishop Jack Spong challenged traditional theological positions and understandings of the Bible; following these developments some have suggested that passages have been mistranslated, are taken out of context, or that they do not refer to what we understand as "homosexuality." generally oppose same-sex sexual relations based on Old Testament and New Testament texts that describe human sexual relations as strictly heterosexual by God's design (Genesis -24; -28; Matthew 19:4-6; 1 Corinthians 7:1–40; Ephesians –33), which God declared "very good" (Genesis -31).
As such, it is argued that sexual desires and actions that contradict God's design are deemed sinful and are condemned by God (e.g.
(Like many similar commandments, the stated punishment for willful violation is the death penalty, although in practice rabbinic Judaism no longer believes it has the authority to implement death penalties.) Orthodox Judaism views homosexual acts as sinful.
The relationship between religion and homosexuality has varied greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and denominations, and regarding different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality.
Present day doctrines of the world's major religions vary vastly generally and by denomination on attitudes toward these sexual orientations.
Even those in denominations with official stances are liberalizing, though not as quickly as those in more affirming religious groups.
Passages from the Mosaic Covenant and its broader Old Testament context have been interpreted to mean that anyone engaging in homosexual practices should be punished with death (Leviticus ; cf.Today some denominations within these religions, except Islam, are accepting of homosexuality and inclusive of homosexual people, such as Reform Judaism, the United Church of Christ and the Metropolitan Community Church.